Home About ATC Exam Library Kudos Contact

We Help You Pass
Our free online study guide really works. You can study for your FAA private pilot ground school exam right now. For more info about the 4VFR.COM project, click here. You can find a daily update log here.

Live ATC Audio Streams
Tune into live air traffic control frequencies from North America. This feature requires Real player. Start listening to ATC now!

Reference Library
Our glossary lists and databases have grown quickly. I am working to create an on-line reference library to tie together all the loose ends. You can check out what is currently available in the library

FAA Practice Exam - New!
Introducing our newly enhanced practice exam. Now with figures!. Take a test a day for a week, and I guarantee you will do better on your exam. Get Started Now!

Show your support for 4VFR.COM - Link us. Bookmark us. Tell your mother about us. Press CTRL-D to bookmark this site now!. Check out one of our proposed T-Shirt Designs.

exams to date

Feature Article: Holding Headings

A pilot (not a student) is expected to hold a heading. The PTS allows a + 10 degree or 20 degree range. It is a mistake to be accepting of this range. Successful flying is most dependent upon acquiring and holding a heading, not a range of headings. Success in holding a heading is dependent upon a pilot's ability to 'hold' the yoke in one position while attention and movement is directed elsewhere. It doesn't come easily or cheaply but it is there to be achieved. Rudder alone will do the best job.

Turning to a heading is another much sought skill. The variables in a turn far exceed those in level flight headings. The turn has the angle of the bank, anticipation of yoke pressures, and airspeed as factors. The quality of the turn is measured by the pilot's ability to determine when to begin rolling the wings level, when to stop at level, and most of all how to keep it there during the transition. For every degree of bank and airspeed we must learn what to do and when to do it.

Other opinions to the contrary, the thirty-degree bank is the safest and most controllable bank. The turn can be cleared and completed in a minimal time. The established bank is quite stable in comparison with others. Making a standard bank procedure develops a sense of turn time and direction that is easily adapted to airport patterns. This stability can be demonstrated by entering a 30-degree bank, putting in about 1/2 turn of trim to hold the nose and then holding the bank with light rudder. It will hold both bank and altitude better than in any other banked condition.

The preferred method of recovering from a bank to a selected heading is to begin recover at half the number of degrees in the bank. A thirty-degree bank's recovery will begin at 15 degrees before the desired heading. These markings are easily observed on the heading indicator. With some adjustment in the recovery rate this method will work for all banks. In the real instrument (IFR) world the standard-rate turn (3-degrees per second) recovery can be done quite quickly without regard to any rule.

Last Modified March 20, ©2018 TAGE.COM

Related Links
Featured Articles
  • Thinking Through Patterns
  • Good Judgement
  • Preflight & Cockpit Management
  • Preparation
  • FAR 61.35(a)(f) and 61 105(a) Aeronautical knowledge
  • Teaching 30 Years Ago
  • Trim
  • Judgement of Limitations
  • Restricted Areas
  • Prevention of taxiing problems
  • Teaching Precepts
  • Flight Review
  • Alert Areas
  • Trim instruction
  • Planned Instruction

    More Flight Training Articles...

  • Student Kudos
    "I think it's a great site...I'm still just fooling around taking a lesson here and there...my work and family life isn't ready for the commitment of me going all out for a license yet. Please keep up the good work for people like me and more importantly for those who really need to cram for there exams(and also for certified pilots that might be getting a little rusty) Thanks"
    - Toby Hochstein