1. Gross Weight and Center of Gravity
Gross weight is the empty weight plus useful load. You must check
the POH to see if empty weight includes oil but it always includes
unusable fuel. Useful load includes useable fuel, (oil?), passengers,
Gross weight directly affects stall, takeoff speed, and maneuvering
speeds. An improperly loaded aircraft will have undesirable flight
qualities. If you have doubts or don't know, refer to the POH.
The Va, maneuvering speed decreases as aircraft weight decreases.
2. Density Altitude
Density altitude combines the effect of pressure altitude and
temperature. This affects engine power, propeller thrust, and
the speed/distance required to create takeoff list.
A headwind will reduce takeoff roll. A tailwind will increase
takeoff roll. Regardless of the wind you always fly indicated
POH airspeeds. A 90-degree crosswind does not affect takeoff roll
distance. Liftoff during takeoffs in gusty wind conditions should
be done at Vso + 5.
5. "What if... Planning
See Takeoff Emergency
Radio frequencies are changed and monitored before call up.
The transponder is activated, gauges and instruments are scanned.
Outside the aircraft is cleared. The EMERGENCY checklist is positioned.
Practice the radio procedure for completeness, brevity, and smoothness
in its entirety until it comes out in the correct order without
pauses of punctuation. Then the frequency is checked and the call
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